Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in the rectum and anus. The disease leads to the appearance of hemorrhoid, which can become inflamed, bleed, fall out of the anus. Hemorrhoids affect both women and men.
At first, there is a slight increase in hemorrhoidal vessels or a small anal skin tag, however, under the influence of factors predisposing to the disease, they increase in size, causing the risk of pinching the nodes in the anus. With prolonged course of the disease, frequent inflammation and bleeding, anemia may occur. However, in the early stages of the disease, hemorrhoids respond well to conservative or minimally invasive treatment, which leads to long-term remission, and with strict adherence to preventive measures, the patient’s recovery!
The causes of hemorrhoids
It is quite difficult to identify the causes of the appearance of hemorrhoids. As a rule, the impetus for the development of the disease is a combination of several unfavorable factors at once. Some aspects leading to the expansion of hemorrhoidal vessels, experts highlight especially often:
- periodic increase in intra-abdominal pressure, which appears with frequent heavy lifting, prolonged constipation, as well as after difficult or prolonged childbirth;
- a sedentary lifestyle, “sedentary” work (office workers, drivers, etc.) suggest stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs, which can also serve as a prerequisite for the occurrence of hemorrhoids;
- alcohol abuse, spicy, salty and fatty foods can trigger the inflammatory process in the hemorrhoidal vessels;
- some sports can also push the development of hemorrhoids: weightlifting, equestrian training, and cycling.
- harmful production factors such as hypothermia and vibration can also play a negative role.
The main symptoms of hemorrhoids are:
- discomfort in the anus;
- drops of blood on toilet paper;
- the appearance of pain during bowel movements;
- discharge of mucus from the rectum;
- prolapse of hemorrhoids from the anus;
- the occurrence of thrombosis (the formation of a dense blood clot in the hemorrhoid);
- complications in case of infection.
Diagnosis of hemorrhoids
If one or more of the above symptoms appear, you should consult a proctologist. The fact is that at the initial stages of many proctological diseases, patients present similar complaints, so it is very important to make the correct diagnosis on time. Such symptoms can be not only with hemorrhoids, but also with anal fissures, and with colitis, as well as in the presence of polyps, genital warts and even cancer.
Due to the delicacy of the problem, some patients self-medicate, thereby aggravating the course of the disease. Timely medical diagnostics is needed here.
Types of hemorrhoids
Distinguish between internal and external hemorrhoids. In addition, hemorrhoids can be acute (with inflammation of the hemorrhoids, when pain and discomfort appears), as well as chronic, in which a person has been sick for months or even years, he has frequent bleeding and loss of nodes until they are pinched. Getting used to, resigning to the problem in the case of a chronic course of the disease, the patient may not notice the gradual progression of the disease and deterioration in health. It is customary to distinguish between the stages of chronic hemorrhoids.
Stages of chronic hemorrhoids
There are four stages in the development of chronic hemorrhoids, each of which is characterized by its own symptoms and differences:
- at the first stage, there is an increase and periodic inflammation of hemorrhoids, spots of scarlet blood can appear on underwear and toilet paper even from slight stress. As a rule, such bleeding is short-lived and occurs after physical exertion, hypothermia, or an act of defecation;
- at the second stage of chronic hemorrhoids, the prolapse of hemorrhoids already occurs. In this case, bleeding may be absent. At this stage, hemorrhoids can be adjusted (retracted) by the body on its own, but after another load, even a small (sneezing, coughing or constipation) nodes fall out of the anus again;
- in the third and fourth stages, the body can no longer correct the fallen out nodes on its own, so you have to do it manually. At these stages, conservative treatment will not be effective. Depending on the general condition of the patient’s body, proctologists recommend one of the methods of minimally invasive or surgical treatment of the disease.
Usually, medical tactics are chosen depending on the stage of development of hemorrhoids, the severity of clinical symptoms, and also on the results of diagnosis. Conservative methods of treatment are effective only in the first stage of the disease, and are rarely effective even in the second stage of treatment of chronic hemorrhoids.
Based on the results of diagnosis and examination of the patient, the doctor determines the method of treatment. At any stage of the disease, it is necessary to carry out complex symptomatic therapy, which will reduce pain, stop bleeding, and, accordingly, improve the patient’s quality of life.
Conservative treatment of hemorrhoids
When treating hemorrhoids, an integrated approach should always be used. The patient is advised to review his diet; and in the presence of constipation, increase the intake of fiber by 10-20%, which is found in vegetables, fruits and cereals. Alcoholic beverages, spicy and salty foods are excluded from the diet, as they irritate the intestinal walls, increase blood circulation in hemorrhoids, increasing the manifestation of hemorrhoids.
To relieve inflammation and reduce bleeding, local therapy (suppositories, ointments, applications) is performed. Sometimes drugs are prescribed that strengthen the walls of the veins of the rectum and anus, which prevent the emergence of new hemorrhoids. For anal bleeding, proctologists recommend suppositories containing anti-inflammatory and pain relievers.
After the removal of acute inflammation, the patient is advised to continue to monitor his health and diet. If the work involves a long stay at the desk, you need to accustom yourself to take short breaks every two to three hours, warm up in order to reduce the pressure on the rectal area and avoid stagnation of blood in the small pelvis. If unfavorable factors are not excluded, then the therapeutic treatment of hemorrhoids will be temporary and ineffective.
Minimally invasive hemorrhoid treatment
At the first or third stages of the development of the disease and always without exacerbation of the process, experts advise resorting to minimally invasive methods of treatment, which involve getting rid of pathologically enlarged hemorrhoids, and, while there is still such an opportunity, to avoid a complex and rather severe surgical intervention that requires a long period of rehabilitation.
In particular, such minimally invasive (less traumatic) techniques are used as: ligation with latex rings and infrared coagulation.
Ligation with latex rings is one of the most modern methods of minimally invasive treatment of internal hemorrhoids in the first or third stages of its development. With the help of special instrumentation, a latex ligature is applied to the leg of the hemorrhoidal node, which disrupts blood circulation in the pathologically dilated hemorrhoidal vessel. In 8-14 days after the procedure, painless death of the hemorrhoid occurs, which, together with the latex ring, is brought out.
Infrared coagulation is carried out under the control of an anoscope. Under the influence of waves of infrared radiation on the legs of the hemorrhoidal vessels of the rectum, the process of blood coagulation (coagulation) occurs in the underlying tissues, which also leads to a disruption of the blood supply to the hemorrhoid. The procedure is performed with an infrared coagulator and allows you to get rid of one or two hemorrhoidal “bumps” in one session. After coagulation, the node stops growing and dies off after a while.
The use of these techniques is possible only in the first or third stages of the disease. However, non-compliance with preventive measures does not exclude the risk of recurrence of hemorrhoids. Nevertheless, such minimally invasive methods allow you to get rid of hemorrhoids quickly, without incisions, anesthesia and a long recovery period.
In one session, it is possible to get rid of one to three nodes, but sometimes the treatment can take place in several stages with an interval of two to three weeks.
Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids
However, in some cases, surgical treatment of hemorrhoids is the only effective method. The main method of surgical intervention is hemorrhoidectomy, that is, excision of the hemorrhoid together with a part of the mucous membrane, as well as stitching its legs. Such an operation is indicated for patients suffering from chronic hemorrhoids at the last stage. It is characterized by: significant bleeding, frequent relapses of the disease and thrombosis of hemorrhoids. In the event of thrombosis of external hemorrhoids, it is possible to use thrombectomy or hemorrhoidectomy on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia.
Prevention of hemorrhoids
If the treatment of hemorrhoids is planned correctly, then the effect of it can last for years, but no specialist can rule out a relapse of the disease. However, if you systematically engage in the prevention of hemorrhoids, then it is quite possible to maintain a state of remission throughout life.
To do this, you must follow simple recommendations:
- Every two to three hours, interrupt “sedentary” work, take a walk or do simple physical exercises that can eliminate the stagnation of blood in the pelvis.
- Eat right. The daily diet should contain vegetables, fruits, herbs that contain fiber, because it perfectly cleanses the intestines and avoids chronic constipation.
- Sitting and sleeping is best on hard surfaces that have orthopedic characteristics.
- Avoid taking laxatives that irritate the rectal mucosa, which in turn leads to cracks and the triggering of the inflammatory process.
- Minimize alcohol, spicy and spicy foods, which are also irritating to the intestinal walls.
- Perform exercises regularly to strengthen the muscles of the small pelvis and genitals. Such exercises are also very useful for inevitable age-related changes in the small pelvis.
Treatment of hemorrhoids in the clinic “Anturium” is carried out taking into account all modern trends in proctology.
Our clinic provides a full range of treatment for acute and chronic hemorrhoids at all stages:
- conservative treatment;
- ligation with latex rings;
- infrared coagulation;
- thrombectomy or hemorrhoidectomy for thrombosis of external hemorrhoids.